The operator MPI_MINLOC is used to compute a global minimum and also an index attached to the minimum value. MPI_MAXLOC similarly computes a global maximum and index. One application of these is to compute a global minimum (maximum) and the rank of the process containing this value.

The operation that defines MPI_MAXLOC is:

where

and

MPI_MINLOC is defined similarly:

where

and

Both operations are associative and commutative.
Note that if MPI_MAXLOC
is applied to reduce a sequence of pairs
*(u _{0}, 0), (u_{1}, 1) , ..., (u_{n-1} , n-1)*, then the value
returned is

The reduce operation is defined to operate on arguments that
consist of a pair: value and index.
For both Fortran and C, types are provided to describe the pair.
The potentially mixed-type nature of such arguments
is a problem in Fortran. The problem is circumvented, for Fortran, by
having the MPI-provided type consist of a pair of the same type as
value, and coercing the index to this type also. In C, the MPI-provided
pair type has distinct types and the index is an `int`.

In order to use MPI_MINLOC and MPI_MAXLOC in a reduce operation, one must provide a datatype argument that represents a pair (value and index). MPI provides nine such predefined datatypes. The operations MPI_MAXLOC and MPI_MINLOC can be used with each of the following datatypes.

The datatype MPI_2REAL is * as if* defined by the following
(see Section Derived Datatypes
).

Similar statements apply for MPI_2INTEGER, MPI_2DOUBLE_PRECISION, and MPI_2INT.MPI_TYPE_CONTIGUOUS(2, MPI_REAL, MPI_2REAL)

The datatype MPI_FLOAT_INT is * as if* defined by the
following sequence of instructions.

Similar statements apply for MPI_LONG_INT and MPI_DOUBLE_INT.type[0] = MPI_FLOAT type[1] = MPI_INT disp[0] = 0 disp[1] = sizeof(float) block[0] = 1 block[1] = 1 MPI_TYPE_CREATE_STRUCT(2, block, disp, type, MPI_FLOAT_INT)

The following examples use intracommunicators.

** Example**
Each process has an array of 30 ` double`s, in C. For each
of the 30 locations, compute the value and rank of the process containing
the largest value.

... /* each process has an array of 30 double: ain[30] */ double ain[30], aout[30]; int ind[30]; struct { double val; int rank; } in[30], out[30]; int i, myrank, root; MPI_Comm_rank(comm, &myrank); for (i=0; i<30; ++i) { in[i].val = ain[i]; in[i].rank = myrank; } MPI_Reduce(in, out, 30, MPI_DOUBLE_INT, MPI_MAXLOC, root, comm); /* At this point, the answer resides on process root */ if (myrank == root) { /* read ranks out */ for (i=0; i<30; ++i) { aout[i] = out[i].val; ind[i] = out[i].rank; } }

** Example**
Same example, in Fortran.

... ! each process has an array of 30 double: ain(30) DOUBLE PRECISION ain(30), aout(30) INTEGER ind(30) DOUBLE PRECISION in(2,30), out(2,30) INTEGER i, myrank, root, ierr CALL MPI_COMM_RANK(comm, myrank, ierr) DO I=1, 30 in(1,i) = ain(i) in(2,i) = myrank ! myrank is coerced to a double END DO CALL MPI_REDUCE(in, out, 30, MPI_2DOUBLE_PRECISION, MPI_MAXLOC, root, comm, ierr) ! At this point, the answer resides on process root IF (myrank .EQ. root) THEN ! read ranks out DO I= 1, 30 aout(i) = out(1,i) ind(i) = out(2,i) ! rank is coerced back to an integer END DO END IF

** Example**
Each process has a non-empty array of values.
Find the minimum global value, the rank of the process that holds it
and its index on this process.

#define LEN 1000 float val[LEN]; /* local array of values */ int count; /* local number of values */ int myrank, minrank, minindex; float minval; struct { float value; int index; } in, out; /* local minloc */ in.value = val[0]; in.index = 0; for (i=1; i < count; i++) if (in.value > val[i]) { in.value = val[i]; in.index = i; } /* global minloc */ MPI_Comm_rank(comm, &myrank); in.index = myrank*LEN + in.index; MPI_Reduce( &in, &out, 1, MPI_FLOAT_INT, MPI_MINLOC, root, comm ); /* At this point, the answer resides on process root */ if (myrank == root) { /* read answer out */ minval = out.value; minrank = out.index / LEN; minindex = out.index % LEN; }

* Rationale.*

The definition of MPI_MINLOC and MPI_MAXLOC given
here has the advantage that it does not require any special-case
handling of these two operations: they are handled like any other
reduce operation. A programmer can provide his or her own definition
of MPI_MAXLOC and MPI_MINLOC, if so desired.
The disadvantage is that values and indices have to be first
interleaved, and that indices and values have to be coerced to the
same type, in Fortran.
(* End of rationale.*)

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